Pulses are a staple in Vegetarian and Indian cuisine due to the fact that they are extremely inexpensive and have offer lots of nutritional benefits, especially protein.
Did you know how many pulses there are? (Hint – over 20!) Not only that, but how versatile they are? With a good stock of pulses in your pantry you can make a plethora of starters, main courses and even desserts – including the dish Dal (an Indian ‘soup’ made of any pulse), Pakoras (Crispy fritters), Dosa, (Crisp savoury pancakes), and sweets such as Moong Dal Halwa. Believe me when I tell you that they are a must-have in any kitchen! They can also be used to make Stews, Soups, Burgers, and even Vegan Omelettes.
The English word ‘pulse’ incorporates Lentils, Beans and Peas. Although the Hindi word ‘Dal’ is often mistranslated to mean Lentils, actually it refers to pulses – both lentils, beans and peas. As well as the ingredient, Dal can also refer to a meal made from lentils.
This information can be beneficial not just for Indian cooking, but many different cuisines.
Furthermore, if you’re interested in learning more about Ingredients, Cookware and other tips, why not check out these articles?
- 16 Essential Herbs and Spices to Cook Indian Food
- A Comprehensive Guide to Whole Spices: Seeds
- A Comprehensive Guide to Indian Cookware – What do you need to cook Indian Food?
- List of Pulses with Pictures and Descriptions
- Frequently asked Questions about Pulses
- Downloadable & Printable Infographic
- Glossary of all Pulse names in English, Hindi & Marathi
Bengal Split Lentils
Chana Dal (Hindi), Harbaryachi Dal / Chanyachi Dal (Marathi)
Sweet and Nutty.
Chana Dal are made from baby chickpeas which have been dried, split and polished. They are medium in size, yellow, and have a rounded appearance and a glossy texture. They are often confused with Toor Dal as they share similar appearances, but Toor Dal is comparatively more oblong and rougher.
Chana Dal can be dry-roasted and then ground to make Besan (Chickpea flour). You can then make a variety of dishes from it, including Pakoras, Dhokla, Halwa, Ladoo and more.
In it’s original form Chana Dal can be boiled to make Dal, a spicy lentil soup. The cooked lentil can also be mixed with jaggery, ghee and spices to make a sweet stuffing for Puranpoli, amongst other things.
Chana Dal does not require pre-soaking to cook, although soaking for 1 hour can make cooking times faster. Without soaking it should take around 40 minutes to cook fully.
kala chana (Hindi), Harbara (Marathi)
Nutty and Firm.
Black chickpeas are comparatively much smaller and darker than their more common white counterparts. Despite the name they are often an extremely dark reddish brown rather than black. They have a more intense nutty flavour, a slightly firmer texture, and a buttery inside.
Black chickpeas can be used in most dishes where you would use white chickpeas. The most common dish is Kala Chana Masala, a richly spiced and homely dish similar to Chana Masala. It tastes great served with Puris, or Kulcha or Naan. You can even use black chickpeas in Chaat and Usal. For an extra dose of nutritional value, use them sprouted!
Black chickpeas are available to buy both dried and canned. The canned variety can be used and cooked directly out of the can, but the dried variety will need overnight soaking.
Black Eyed Beans
lobia / chavli (Hindi), chavali (Marathi)
Savoury, Earthy and Nutty.
Black eyed beans are creamy off-white in colour, with a black mark on the inner curve. They are shiny, smooth and highly polished. Medium in size, they have a mild nutty, earthy taste and a creamy texture once cooked.
Black eyed beans are a common staple in Indian households. You can make many simple savoury dishes like Punjabi Lobia Masala, Chavali Bhaji, Chavali Usal, or Karamani Sundal. Some lesser known but none-the-less delicious ideas are Chavli Chaat or Chavli Pulao.
Like most beans, they are available to buy canned and dried. The canned variety can be added to dishes straight away and don’t require soaking. The dried variety should be soaked for a minimum of 5 hours, or even overnight before cooking.
Black Split Lentils
urad Dhuli (Hindi), udid (Marathi)
Mild and Creamy.
These are the split and skinned version of Urad Dal. They are small, oblong in shape and have a creamy off-white colour.
These lentils are most often used in South Indian dishes. It’s a vital ingredient in the batter of Dosa, Idli and Vada – staples of the South Indian home. To make these, the Urad Dal is soaked and then ground into a fine batter and left to ferment with other ingredients.
It’s also used as a tempering – fried in oil with other spices at the beginning of a dish. This preparation is used in Aloo Masala (for Dosa), along with many other dishes. Using the lentil in this way adds a delightful crunchy texture to vegetable dishes like this Patta Gobi Sabji.
Split Urad Dal doesn’t require soaking. It can also be boiled like any other lentil to make Dal.
Black Split Unskinned Lentils
urad Chilka (Hindi), udid (Marathi)
Rich and Earthy.
Urad Chilka are the split but un-skinned variety. They have a matt black outer skin covering a creamy white interior, with an oblong shape, half rounded, half flat.
They have a much richer flavour than the split and skinned version, without being as intense as the whole Urad Dal. Like the other varieties of Urad, it has a unique creamy, slightly slimy texture when cooked – but in a good way!
The most common way to eat this variety of lentil is as a spicy Dal, but you can also use it soaked and ground to make Dosa batters.
Be sure to only soak Urad Chilka for 30 minutes before cooking. Longer soaking will cut down on the cooking time but will cause the husk to be removed, which is not necessary when you want that extra flavour.
Black Whole Lentils
urad sabut (Hindi), udid (Marathi)
Earthy and warming.
Whole Urad Dal are small, rounded beans with an oval shape and a matt black colour which can sometimes include very dark green and brown beans. They have a small white section on the outside of the bean and are completely white from inside.
They are the most flavoursome of all the varieties of Urad dal, and when cooked they have a distinctive texture which is creamy and slightly slimy (in a good way!), quite unlike any of the other lentils.
The most famous dish to use whole Urad Dal is the Punjabi Dal Makhani, a creamy delicacy cooked with these as well as Red Kidney beans. You can also cook the dal alone as in Maa ki Dal. Whole Urad Dal benefits from long, slow cooking.
Ideally the lentil should be soaked overnight to reduce the cooking time.
Green Gram Lentil
Moong Dal (Hindi), Mug / Mugachi Dal (Marathi)
Mild and Buttery.
Made from split and skinned moong beans, these lentils are very small, vivid yellow, shiny, and oblong in shape.
In my opinion they are the most versatile lentil and a great choice to have in your pantry. Of course you can make a standard Dal Fry or Dal Tadka with Moong Dal, but you can get a bit more inventive too! Moong Dal is used to make the breakfast dish Cheela – a savoury crepe – as well as various Pakora and Vada. It can also be used as a stuffing for snacks like Kachori and Paratha.
You can even make sweet treats with Moong Dal by mixing it with ghee and sugar. One of the most famous dishes is Moong Dal Halwa, a must try.
This lentil doesn’t require soaking and cooks down to a nice creamy consistency in a relatively short amount of time.
Moong Dal is quite a well known lentil so should be relatively easy to find if you live in an Urban city.
Green Gram Split
Moong Chilka (Hindi), Mug / Mugachi Dal (Marathi)
Sweet and Soft.
These lentils are split Moong beans with their skin intact. They are white on the inside and with a deep-forest green rounded half.
This is a less commonly used lentil but nonetheless delicious. You can use it to make many savoury breakfasts such as Moong Dosa or Cheela, both variations of savoury crepes. For something a bit different you can make the savoury Gujarati snack Handvo which is made from mixed lentils, a spicy Paratha stuffing, or even Papad.
Moong Chilka can also be used to make the traditional Dal just like any other lentil.
They don’t require any soaking before being cooked. Another benefit is that they don’t take much time to cook and the end result will be thick and creamy as the lentil breaks down into the sauce very easily.
Green Gram Whole / Moong Beans
SAbut moong dal (Hindi), Mug (Marathi)
Beany, Sweet and Nutty.
Moong beans are small, rounded and oval shaped. They havee a light forest green colour with the occasional white mark along their sides. They are glossy and shiny.
Moong beans can be cooked just like split lentils into a Dal. Gujarati Mug is delicious with notes of tanginess.
However, moong beans really come into their own when sprouted. Sprouting increases the nutrition of beans as well as making them easier for us to digest, so it’s a great option. The sprouted beans can be used in Indian dishes like Marathi Usal and Misal Pav, as well as in traditional Chinese dishes. ‘Beansprouts’ are made from moong beans.
Whether you want to cook Moong Beans as a Dal or you want to sprout them, they’ll require soaking. Soak overnight and the next morning they can be put to sprout or can be cooked in less than 10 minutes.
Pigeon Pea Lentils
Tuvar Dal / Arhar Dal (Hindi), Toor Dal (Marathi)
Mild, Gently Sweet and Nutty
Toor Dal is one of the larger lentils, with a deep yellow colour and oblong shape. They are often confused with Chana Dal as they are both a very similar colour and size, but Toor Dal tends to be much less round and with a rougher texture.
In Gujarat, a variety of the dessert Puranpoli is made using Toor Dal rather than Chana Dal.
Despite the popularity of Toor Dal in India, it remains a relatively unknown lentil in England. It doesn’t require soaking before use although it will decrease the cooking time. Without soaking, Toor Dal will cook in around 40 minutes to a nice creamy texture.
Red Kidney Beans
Rajma (Hindi & Marathi)
Flavoursome and Meaty.
Red Kidney Beans are medium in size, with a gently curved body and a deep red colour. They have small white spots on the curving side and are quite distinctive from other beans.
These beans are often used in Vegetarian Burgers as the texture is quite ‘meaty’. You’ll also often see them utilised a lot in traditional Mexican and South American cuisines.
In India, some of the most famous dishes using Red Kidney Beans are Punjabi Rajma Chawal, along with Dal Makhani, which uses the kidney beans to give a rich and creamy texture.
Like most beans, you can buy them dried or canned. The dried beans will need soaking for a minimum of 5 hours or preferably overnight before cooking.
Red Split Lentils
Masoor Dal (Hindi), Masurachi Dal (Marathi)
Mild and Earthy.
Masoor Dal is a small, thin lentil with a vivid orange colour and a very rounded shape. Unlike Toor Dal and Chana Dal which have a firmer texture, Masoor Dal easily melts away and disintegrates into your dish.
This lentil is the perfect choice for a quick and easy meal option. The lentils don’t require any pre-soaking and cook very quickly, becoming soft in no time.
It’s a great choice for the classic dish Dal Fry, and also makes great stuffed Parathas as well as the comforting Dal-Rice combination dish Khichdi.
Perhaps because of the fast cooking time and ease of preparing these lentils, you’ll probably find them quite easily at your local grocery store.
[Kabuli] Chana / Chole(Hindi), Harbhara (Marathi)
Nutty, Earthy and Creamy.
White chickpeas can vary in size depending on where they’re from. Desi Chana tend to be smaller then their European cousins, but all varieties are rounded with a slight point on top and beige in colour.
They are often used in savoury dishes as a stand alone ingredient or combined with other vegetables. The most widely known dish is Chana Masala, commonly eaten with Kulcha, Puri or Bhatura. On top of that, chickpeas are widely used in Chaat dishes like Samosa Chaat. You can even use chickpeas as the main ingredient of Pulao or Biryani.
Chickpeas are commonly available in canned form, which is great for convenience as they are ready to use from the tin. Alternatively you can also buy them dried, which some say has a better flavour. These will need overnight soaking.
Whole Moth Beans
Moth (Hindi), Matki (Marathi)
Rich and Nutty.
Moth Beans (otherwise known as Turkish Gram) are small, oblong shaped beans which come in shades of brown.
They are sometimes mistaken for the similar looking Horse Gram (Kulthi Dal in Hindi). Horse Gram is a lot less common and can be distinguished by having a far greater range of colours. They are not interchangeable.
They are commonly used across India, but most famously in Maharashtra, which is the birthplace of the popular dish Matki Usal. Moth beans are also a vital component of the Marathi street-food dish Misal Pav. Both of these dishes use sprouted moth beans, which increases the nutritional value and is a really healthy way to eat them.
You can also use Moth Beans whole by cooking them into a Dal, or grind them and use the flour for Bhujia.
Soak the Moth beans overnight before use whether you want to cook them as Dal or sprout them.
Frequently Asked Questions about Pulses:
- Are Yellow Split Peas the same as Chana Dal or Toor Dal?
No, yellow split peas are a different lentil altogether called Matar Dal in Hindi. I haven’t included them on the list as they aren’t commonly used in India. There is a lot of misconception that these three lentils are the same, and I even see recipes online stating this – probably because the English name is very similar to the appearance of both Chana Dal and Toor Dal, which are both yellow and split! Yellow Split Peas are often suggested as an alternative to Chana Dal in areas where the later is not accessible. However, I would not recommend this if possible. The reason being that they have a different taste and different cooking times as well.
- How long do pulses last? Do they go bad?
Pulses last for years! Because they are dried, if stored properly they are very unlikely to go bad. Keep them in an airtight container so no moisture contaminates them and you should be fine. But the only cravat is that the older lentils get, the longer they take to cook. You can offset this by soaking them before cooking and allowing more time to cook.
- How can I stop stomach troubles and gas after eating pulses?
This is a common issue for people who aren’t used to eating large quantities of pulses. Soaking both lentils and beans makes them easier for the body to digest. Not all pulses require soaking but even those which don’t can be soaked for 30 minutes prior to cooking. Additionally, adding a pinch of hing (Asafoetida) to your lentils while they cook or in the tadka (tempering) will also help.
- Is it Dal, Dahl, Dhal or Daal?
Nik and I prefer the spelling ‘Dal’ because that’s the most commonly accepted spelling and best reflects the actual pronunciation of the word. With most Indian dishes you’ll find a lot of spelling variations when they’re transliterated to English, which can make it determine if each variation is referring to the same thing or different dishes. In this case, all these spellings are referring to the same thing.
So why is it that there are so many spellings? Firstly, India has 23 official languages and almost 2000 unofficial languages. Of course, all of these languages have different words for the same thing! In addition to this, the Indian languages don’t use the Roman Alphabet like we do. Most of the North Indian languages use the Devanagari script/alphabet, which has around 50 major letters compared to our 23. It’s impossible to use our Roman Alphabet to spell Indian words because we simply don’t have the right phonetics. That’s why you have so many different, inconsistent variations.
Glossary of Names in English, Hindi and Marathi
|Bengal Split Lentils||Chana Dal||Harbaryachi Dal, Chanyachi dal|
|Black Chickpeas||Kala Chana||Harbhara|
|Black Eyed Beans||Lobia, Chavli||Chavali|
|Black Split Lentils||Urad Dal||Udid|
|Black Skinned Lentils||Urad Dhuli||Udid|
|Black Whole Lentils||Urad Sabut||Udid|
|Green Split Lentils||Moong Chilka||Mugachi Dal|
|Green Whole Lentils||Moong, Mung||Mug|
|Pigeon Pea Lentils, Split||Toor Dal, Tuvar Dal, Arhar Dal||Turichi Dal|
|Red Kidney Beans||Rajma||Rajma|
|Red Split Lentils||Masoor Dal||Masurachi Dal|
|White Chickpeas (Garbanzo Beans)||Chana, Kabuli Chana, Chole||Harbhara|
|Whole Moth Beans||Moth Dal, Matki||Matki|
|Yellow Split Lentils||Moong Dal||Mug|